Species profile: Triaenodes bicolor

January 12, 2017

Triaenodes bicolor (Curtis, 1834)

Triaenodes bicolor is one of 24 members of the Family Leptoceridae found in Ireland, and the only member of the genus Triaenodes. It is a species whose larvae can be found in ponds, lakes, canals, slow rivers and permanently wet fens, on a substratum of living plant material, occurring only in standing water. Triaenodes bicolor has a straight case made of a spiral of plant material. The species has no preference in relation to the pH of the water and can occur in brackish water.

In temperate areas, Triaenodes bicolor has a univoltine (one generation per year) reproductive cycle, and lives for up to one year. In terms of feeding ecology, this species is a mix of a grazer and a shredder.

Defining features of the larvae of Triaenodes bicolor include antennae at least six times longer than wide, a mesonotum without dark, curved posterior-lateral projections, anal region lacking toothed plates or rows of strong spines on the prolegs, 1st abdominal lateral sclerite without a dark line on the posterior projection and 3rd leg with two long setal fringes to enable swimming.

The adults of Triaenodes bicolor can be found on the wing in June to September.

For details of records of Triaenodes bicolor, visit the National Biodiversity Data Centre page here.

Triaenodes bicolor


Barnard, P. and Ross, E. (2012) The Adult Trichoptera (Caddisflies) of Britain and Ireland. RES Handbook Volume 1, Part 17.

Graf, W., Murphy, J., Dahl, J., Zamora-Muñoz, C. and López-Rodríguez, M.J. (2008) Distribution and Ecological Preferences of European Freshwater Species. Volume 1: Trichoptera. Astrid Schmidt-Kloiber & Daniel Hering (eds). Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.

O’Connor, J.P. (2015) A Catalogue and Atlas of the Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Ireland. Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society, No. 11.

Wallace, I.D., Wallace, B. and Philipson, G.N. (2003) Keys to the Case-bearing Caddis Larvae of Britain and Ireland. Scientific Publication of the Freshwater Biological Association No. 61.

Last updated: 09/04/2018



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